The next two Arkansas SCV Division meetings will be held at the Whole Hog diner located at 2516 Cantrell Road in Little Rock, Arkansas. The first will be August 24, 2013 from noon-3pm and the second will be January 11, 2014 from 12:30pm-3:30pm.
The next two Arkansas SCV Division meetings will be held at the Whole Hog diner located at 2516 Cantrell Road in Little Rock, Arkansas. The first will be August 24, 2013 from noon-3pm and the second will be January 11, 2014 from 12:30pm-3:30pm.
Join us May 24-26 in historic Helena. This observance of the sesquicentennial of the Battle of Helena is sponsored by the Delta Cultural Center, the Arkansas Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission, and the Helena Advertising and Promotion Commission.
SCHEDULE OF EVENTS
Friday, May 24:
Spectators are encouraged to visit the camps during the day. Registered food and merchandise vendors will be open for business.
All Day Reenactor, Artillery and Vendor set up
9 AM – 5 PM Participant Registration Open
Delta Cultural Center Depot
Noon-7 PM Vendors Open at Cherry Street Pavilion
Noon-5 PM Moore-Hornor Home Open for Tours
Noon-Sunset Camps Open for Visitors
5 PM After-hours viewing of “Lincoln: The Constitution and the Civil War” exhibit
Delta Cultural Center Visitors Center
7 PM Battle Briefing at Beth El Heritage Hall
(Open to Reenactors and the Public)
Saturday, May 25:
Designated areas will be provided for viewing the assault on the Fort. Some activities are restricted to registered Reenactors only. Spectators will hear distant gunfire moving closer to town as the morning progresses and the activity nears Fort Curtis.
Battle of Helena Reenactment Event:
9 AM-Sunset Camps Open for Visitors
8 AM-10 AM Participant Registration Open
Delta Cultural Center Depot
9 AM-Noon Moore-Hornor Home Open for Reenactment Tours
Living History & Civil War hospital interpretation
9 AM Confederate Army begin their march through Crowley’s Ridge toward Helena
9 AM-11 PM Skirmish atop the ridge road toward Battery C
10 AM-9 PM Vendors Open at Cherry Street Pavilion
10 AM First shots of the Battle of Helena 150
(Confederates start driving in Federal pickets)
11AM-1PM Spectators Witness the Battle of Helena 150 reenactment
Designated viewing area near Fort Curtis
11 AM-11:30 AM Skirmish on historic Battery C
11:30 AM-Noon Attack on Battery C and Fort Curtis
(Federal retreat from Battery C to Fort Curtis – Confederates pursue)
Noon-5 PM Moore-Hornor Home Open for Regular Tours
Noon-1 PM Final charge onto Fort Curtis
1 PM Battle of Helena Reenactment concludes
3 PM-7 PM Artillery training in Fort Curtis
(Registered Reenactors Only)
Battle of Helena 150 Lectures:
The reenactment will be followed by a series of Civil War lectures at Beth El Heritage Hall 406 Perry Street in Historic Downtown Helena. The lectures are free and open to the public.
2 PM Music by Harmony
3 PM Dyan Bohnert: “Food and Medicine of the Civil War and Before”
4 PM Mark Christ: “The Battle of Helena”
5 PM Music by Harmony
6 PM Jack Myers: “U.S.S. Tyler”
Downtown Evening Events:
Spectators are encouraged to attend the artillery demonstration and free outdoor concert.
Sunset Artillery demonstration on levee near Cherry Street Pavilion
8:30 PM Civil War concert and dance at the Cherry Street Pavilion
Sunday, May 26:
Spectators are welcome to observe the reenactment along the banks of the Mississippi River in the Helena River Park.
Secondary Battle of Helena 150 Reenactment:
8:00 – 9:30 AM Battle at Fort Curtis
10:00 AM Worship Service at Cherry Street Pavilion
11:00 AM Battle of Helena 150 Concludes
11:15 AM Artillery training in Fort Curtis
(Registered Reenactors Only)
Some activities and events are for reenactors only.
Spectator areas will be designated.
Please bring your own lawn chairs.
Registered food and merchandise vendors will be set up.
Portraits in Gray: A Civil War Photography Exhibition featuring the collection of David Wynn Vaughan will be on display at The William F. Laman Public Library starting on March 29th
Private collector from Atlanta, Georgia, David Wynn Vaughan has arguably the largest collection of Civil War Confederate images in the nation, many of them identified. The exhibition will feature 70 of his images in 9 thematic sections. One section highlights his rare collection includes eight of the known 12 portraits of cadets at the Georgia Military Institute.
“Portraits in Gray” is a unique multi-themed gallery which provides the viewer with an in depth emotional experience and knowledge of photographic subjects from the time of the Civil War. The portraits themselves are high quality large size reproductions of originals from David Wynn Vaughan’s nationally acclaimed collection of Southern soldiers, which draw the viewer into the eyes of each subject. Each image holds an expression frozen in time.
The exhibition seeks to educate the viewer about the how photography of the period has become so important to the modern historian. The viewer learns about the photographers of the time and the many processes they used. The viewer will also learn the intimate details of a soldier’s visit to have his “likeness” made. Finally, the gallery through the collected wisdom of David Vaughn will assist the novice collector in the dos and don’ts of collecting period images. All of the images (are only a fraction of David’s collection) were selected by David and museum curatorial staff based upon their aesthetic appeal and best representation of each gallery section theme. This exhibit is presented by the Southern Museum of Civil War and Locomotive History, Kennesaw, Georgia
Portraits in Gray will be on display in the exhibit hall at The William F. Laman Public Library until June 15. The library is open from are 9 a.m. -9 p.m. Monday-Thursday, 9a.m. -5p.m. Friday-Saturday, 1-5p.m. Sunday. Admission to the exhibit is free. For more information please call (501) 758-1720 or visit www.lamanlibrary.org
In the spring and summer of 1862, a Union general named Samuel Curtis led the Army of the Southwest from southern Missouri toward Helena, Arkansas. It was a four-mile procession of soldiers, horses, wagons, and artillery, but during the months-long march, the numbers grew: As the army passed through, slaves left their homes to join the line, pursuing freedom under the protection of Curtis’ forces.
Some Union commanders refused to allow fleeing slaves behind their lines. But Curtis, an abolitionist, took them in as contraband, even issuing papers declaring their freedom.
By the time Curtis reached Helena, on July 12th, some 2,000 “freedom seekers” had joined his line. With word spreading that refugee slaves were not turned back, others began to flock to Helena as well, overflowing makeshift contraband camps around the city. Soon, a hospital and school for freedmen were established.
Following the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1st, the Year of Jubilee was celebrated and forces were raised for a U.S. Colored Troops regiment out of Helena. By the end of the war, more than 5,500 former Arkansas slaves would fight for the Union, with more than 85 percent coming from the Delta.
You can be forgiven for not knowing this story. I grew up in eastern Arkansas, not far from Helena, and was never taught it. Until recently, few in Helena knew about this chapter in their town’s history.
The story of Helena’s freedom seekers is not unique among Southern stories soon buried under Lost Cause mythology and officially forgotten. Three years after Curtis marched into Helena, former slaves in Charleston, South Carolina, dug up Union soldiers who had perished in a Confederate prison and were buried in a mass grave. The former slaves gave those who helped free them a proper burial and then commemorated them with a massive parade, speeches, and songs. It was the birth of what we now call Memorial Day.
“People who like to talk about ‘revisionist history’ always hit on that they’re changing this story that’s been told for years and years and years,” says Joseph Brent, a Birmingham-bred, Kentucky-based historian whose company Mudpuppy & Waterdog consults on public history projects. “That story was modeled by the United Confederate Veterans and the Daughters of the Confederacy, and it’s one of those weird situations where the losers wrote the history. That’s the hardest thing to break through. When your dad and your granddad and your great-granddad tell you these stories, it’s kind of hard to say, well, they weren’t right.”
The Lost Cause itself was a revisionist spin that has held sway in the South, to one degree or another, for generations, promulgated not just by the vanquished and their descendents, but by blinkered academics and the popular culture, driven by the post-Reconstruction willingness to sacrifice black freedom for the cause of white reconciliation.
But that’s changing. In places like Charleston and Helena, the hard work of severing a Southern view of history from a Confederate one is finally being done.
The first “decoration day” was a memory repressed by post-Reconstruction Charleston and lost until Yale historian David Blight rediscovered it several years ago.
But Charleston recognized this part of its history in 2010, with a marker at the original site. And now Helena is in the midst of an ambitious “Civil War Helena” campaign to rediscover, interpret, and present the full measure of its own community history. On February 23rd, as Memphis wrangled anew over the future of its “Confederate” parks and monuments, Helena dedicated Freedom Park on the site of one of its former contraband camps, giving those freedom seekers some long-overdue recognition.
The Helena Story
“When you talk about the Civil War in the South, you think mainly of Confederates. And that’s what had been promoted here in Phillips County,” says Cathy Cunningham, a community development consultant for Southern Bancorp and one of the civic leaders spearheading the Civil War Helena initiative in the economically depressed Delta town, 70 miles south of Memphis.
“We did have seven Confederate generals [who came from the county], which is great. But there’s so much more to the story than that,” Cunningham says.
For generations, those seven generals and the July 1863 “Battle of Helena” — in which Union forces held the city from a Confederate counterattack — were the extent of the history Helena acknowledged.
“If you asked anyone, it was those two things,” says Katie Harrington, director of the Helena-based Delta Cultural Center, which is an offshoot of the Arkansas Department of Heritage.
Rescuing the city’s broader Civil War-era history began in the early 1990s, with the work of Ronnie Nichols, a Little Rock native and African-American Civil War buff who was then the Delta Cultural Center director. Nichols first proposed building a replica of Fort Curtis, the Union stronghold that was forged, in large part, by freed slaves. And he organized the first Battle of Helena reenactment in the city.
“At some point, people became locked in time, and really one of the greatest assets [in Helena] is the Civil War history,” says Nichols, who served as a technical adviser on the film Glory, about black Union troops, and is now a historical consultant based out of Potomac, Maryland. “It’s something that people had not developed and seemed to almost work around as opposed to using it as a draw. But Helena was really the crucible of the Civil War in Arkansas, so it had a very important role.”
“Because of Ronnie’s research, we thought it was something very exciting. It’s just taken awhile to pull it together,” Cunningham says. “When he was interested in doing this, we, as a community, may not have been ready for it. I think now we are.”
The change began with the Delta Bridge Project, a public-private community development initiative spurred by Southern Bancorp in 2003.
“The community came together and decided what goals they wanted to pursue,” Cunningham says. “Within tourism, the people at the meetings — and we had more than 600 community members attend — put an emphasis on Civil War Helena.”
The project has been led, jointly, by Southern Bancorp, the Delta Cultural Center, and the recently formed Helena Advertising and Promotion Commission. They called for proposals in 2008 and hired Mudpuppy & Waterdog — Joseph Brent and his anthropologist/archaeologist wife, Maria Campbell Brent — to help develop an interpretive plan.
“We chose Mudpuppy & Waterdog mainly because they weren’t just talking about troop movements and the battle. They were interested in the effects [the war] had on the people who came here,” Cunningham says. “What did the Confederate women feel like once they were left here? We liked that aspect of it. They gave us much more than we expected.”
“In our proposal, we said we wanted to tell everybody’s stories. There was so much going on in Helena that had not been told before,” Maria Brent says.
The result has been a 25-site plan that tells a comprehensive history of Helena during the war. Before Freedom Park, there was New Fort Curtis, a realization of Nichols’ initial vision, which was built to three-quarter scale three blocks south of the original site (which is now a church) and which was dedicated in 2012. A new statue of Helena’s most famous Confederate general, Patrick Cleburne, adorns the path to downtown’s Helena Museum. Cleburne is buried in Helena’s Confederate Cemetery, which sits atop a hill in Maple Hill Cemetery, overlooking the adjacent Magnolia Cemetery, an African-American resting place containing the graves of Civil War veterans and Reconstruction-era leaders.
From the soon-to-be refurbished Battery C, you can survey the entire city and see how the Battle of Helena played out. For military buffs, it’s fascinating. But the Civil War Helena project also tells other stories, from those of the freedom seekers to those of left-behind Confederate women living under Union control. This comprehensive approach to history remembers the loss of the war while also celebrating the liberation. If not unique, this approach is still rare in the South. But it’s becoming less so.
“The Park Service, a few years ago, had a ‘come to Jesus’ moment,” Joseph Brent says. “They decided that in all of their Civil War parks they were going to talk about slavery and talk about how slavery was the cause of the Civil War.”
Brent mentions a project in Corinth, Mississippi, which Mudpuppy & Waterdog worked on, that details its contraband slave camp. “That’s about the only other place I know where this is being told,” he says. “But I think, as a whole, this is a direction in which a lot of people want to go.”
Everyone involved in the Civil War Helena project insists that resistance to this comprehensive approach, while not nonexistent, has been minor.
“Everything is fact-based. Everyone has their own opinion. Some may not want to wear a Union uniform, but that doesn’t change the fact that we had a Union fort,” Harrington says. “We’re not Disney World.”
“Some people, if you show them the history and that it’s traced through primary documents, are willing to listen. But some people just aren’t,” Joseph Brent says of the general challenge of telling a comprehensive Civil War history in the South. “But if you base interpretation on good, solid research, you can tell a story that gives everyone a voice. Civilians and African Americans and Confederates and the Union.”
History Belongs to Us
It helped, in Helena, that the project has been couched as an engine for much-needed economic development.
“We do a lot of battlefield preservation and interpretation,” Maria Brent says. “You deal with people who seem to have leanings in [the Confederate] direction. But with most of the sites that we work with, one of their motives is developing tourism. They know that the more inclusive they can be, the broader the appeal can be to nontraditional visitors. And they need that.”
“Because of the physicality of the place, it really lends itself to that,” Nichols says of the prospects for Civil War tourism in Helena. “We would have people who would come in from Minnesota and Missouri and so forth and say, ‘My great-great-granduncle served here, and can you tell me or show me something about it?’ So it wasn’t just about black history. People were coming in who knew about the place, but there wasn’t anything to show. So the whole idea was that we needed to start developing what people are asking for.”
Helena is well-positioned between Shiloh in West Tennessee and Vicksburg in Mississippi, both of which draw hundreds of thousands of visitors a year. The hope is that Civil War Helena can tap into a decent percentage of those tourists.
“We think Helena is well located to draw visitors from each of those places,” Maria Brent says. “Until recently, there hasn’t been anything to really explain what was going on in Helena. So it’s been under-visited. It’s mostly been known for Patrick Cleburne, and that’s where most of the visitation has come from, pilgrimages to the gravesite.”
“Helena needs anything it can get,” Harrington says. “I want to be high with my expectations, but anything is better than nothing. Helena’s had a lot of ups and downs.”
In addition to tapping into the existing heritage tourism market, the hope is that a more comprehensive approach to the history can also help broaden that tourist base. This means reaching beyond the stereotypical (or maybe it’s just typical) Civil War tourist — the older white man interested in battle logistics — and reaching more African Americans, more women, and more families.
“I think everyone agrees that if you can find someone you can relate to, it’s easier to be interested,” Harrington says of the approach. “You don’t have to be a Civil War historian to catch onto the story.”
This broad approach may be good for business. But it’s also good history. The brochure touting Civil War Helena reads: “This is the story of our nation’s struggle. This is our history.” “Our” means all of us.
And that hints at what’s most refreshing about it: This is Southern Civil War history seen through a contemporary American lens rather than a Confederate lens.
Nichols mentions that, while at the Delta Cultural Center, he was the only African-American member of the Arkansas Civil War Roundtable. That Nichols is an anomaly as a black Civil War buff is itself an indictment of the way this history has been presented.
The writer Ta-Nehisi Coates wrote eloquently on this subject for The Atlantic last year, chronicling his own lonely experience as a young, African-American Civil War buff in an essay bluntly titled “Why Do So Few Blacks Study the Civil War?”
“[O]ur general sense of the war was that a horrible tragedy somehow had the magical effect of getting us free,” Coates wrote. “Its legacy belonged not to us, but to those who reveled in the costume and technology of a time when we were property.”
Then he continued:
“Our alienation was neither achieved in independence, nor stumbled upon by accident, but produced by American design. The belief that the Civil War wasn’t for us was the result of the country’s long search for a narrative that could reconcile white people with each other, one that avoided what professional historians now know to be true: that one group of Americans attempted to raise a country wholly premised on property in Negroes, and that another group of Americans, including many Negroes, stopped them. In the popular mind, that demonstrable truth has been evaded in favor of a more comforting story of tragedy, failed compromise, and individual gallantry. For that more ennobling narrative, as for so much of American history, the fact of black people is a problem.”
“African Americans are Southerners too, and their history is as significant as that of white Southerners,” Joseph Brent says. “That’s always the story that’s been left out. And it’s great when communities can embrace and tell these stories and involve African Americans in their Civil War history — because it is their history as much as it is the Southern, white, Confederate story. Let’s face it, many, when they had the opportunity, did join the Union Army, and they did fight. It’s a complicated history. As more of these stories come out, it adds to the fabric of our history.”
Letter to Memphis
The comprehensiveness of the historical interpretation in Helena stands in stark contrast to Memphis’ embattled parks.
The former Confederate Park, on Front Street, is historically incoherent by comparison. It’s meant to commemorate the Naval Battle of Memphis, on June 6, 1862, which was a Mississippi River precursor to the following battles in Helena and Vicksburg.
The land atop the bluff where the park is located was where civilians gathered to watch the gunboat battle on the river below. But the Union won this battle in short order, and Memphis, like Helena, was Union-occupied for the remainder of the war.
The name “Confederate Park” didn’t convey this history. It conveyed the attitudes of those who dedicated the park in 1908, after Reconstruction was abandoned and former Confederates had reclaimed the South. Similarly, the statue of Jefferson Davis at the center of the park has little to do with the actual history that took place there, beyond Davis’ role as president of the Confederacy at the time. Davis did spend a few years living in Memphis but much later. The inscription on the Davis monument refers to “The War Between the States” and asserts, without a trace of irony, that Davis, the ultimate secessionist leader, was “a true American patriot.”
Other elements that dot the park include a couple of markers about Confederate-connected Memphians, a World War I medical monument, and, most incongruently, a 1952 Jaycees monument displaying the Ten Commandments.
If the message of the former Confederate Park is muddled, the former Forrest Park comes across as a civic abdication to the Lost Cause. While Forrest’s relevance to the history of Memphis is incontestable, his meaning is, of course, fiercely contested. And nowhere is this acknowledged. There is no reference to his history as a slave trader or his post-war role in the foundation of the Ku Klux Klan. An inscription says that the statue was erected “in honor of [Forrest's] military genius,” without, of course, an acknowledgment that these military exploits were performed in the service of an attempt to preserve and expand slavery — as if “military genius,” in itself, is worthy of being honored. Instead, there’s another inscription, from “poet laureate of the Confederacy” Virginia Frazer Boyle, that uses the words “God,” “titan,” and “glory” in four lines.
Cultural products tend to reveal the circumstances of their production. Gone With the Wind is “about” the South during the Civil War era. But, released in 1939, the real meaning of the film and its popularity come from what it says about how people in 1939 viewed this history; how seductive the lies of the Lost Cause were for most of the country at that time.
The Jefferson Davis statue on Front Street was erected in 1964, when much of the white South was pushing back against the demands of the civil rights movement and acting in defiance of federal attempts to impose integration and other measures of justice. In that context, is the Davis statue a Civil War monument or a segregationist monument?
The remains of Nathan Bedford Forrest and his wife, Mary, were moved from their initial resting place at Elmwood Cemetery to Forrest Park in 1905 by the Sons of Confederate Veterans. Is the Forrest statue a Civil War monument or a Jim Crow monument?
These “Confederate” parks and monuments have always been bad or, at best, incomplete history. But there was a time when they reflected the values of the communities that built them. That time has passed.
And so, with the fates of these parks in limbo, this perhaps unwanted moment presents an opportunity — not to erase history but to rescue it. In Helena, they’ve managed an honest, full reckoning with history that also honors contemporary community values. Memphis lacks the same kind of opportunity and need to leverage Civil War history for economic development. But as far as presenting true public history and finally resolving a long-festering civic embarrassment, the city could do worse than to look south for inspiration.
The Seven General Sons of Confederate Veterans Camp will have its organizational meeting Monday, Feb. 18, 2013 at the American Legion Hut at 409 Perry Street in historic downtown Helena, Arkansas. The meeting will begin at 6:30PM and is expected to last until about 8PM. You do not have to have an ancestor that fought with the Confederacy to come! Everyone is welcomed and the meeting is open to the public. Bring a friend!
Because of the valiant support of dedicated individuals across the globe, the money has been raised for the purchase of Confederate Memorial Park in Helena, Arkansas.
We have taken a rare opportunity for the Sons of Confederate Veterans to own a core piece of battlefield and made it a reality! Located in Helena, Arkansas directly across from Fort Curtis and to the side of a Civil War era home (Moore-Hornor Home), both properties of which are maintained by the State of Arkansas (Delta Cultural Center) is approximately an acre of core battlefield that backs up to the site where General Price's troops made an attack on Fort Curtis on July 4, 1863.
On March 15, 2013 the General Executive Committee of the Sons of Confederate Veterans met in Biloxi, MS. At this meeting it was decided that the property will be donated to the SCV- This is a much-needed heritage victory in the Delta!
Your support is greatly needed!
Mail a check or money order today to:
Seven Generals Camp #135
PO Box 409
Helena, AR 72342
Your donation is tax-deductable!
Your donations are welcome for the maintenance of the property! Donate today!
The Arkansas Toothpick is the largest repository of Arkansas Civil War history and heritage. Observing the 150th Anniversary of the War Between the States is a task that the Toothpick does not take lightly, as we have posted original and exclusive articles on events in Arkansas on a weekly and chronological basis since 2010 (150 years after 1860). The purpose of the "150 Years Ago..." articles, written and researched by Ron Kelley and Don Roth, is to give a true reflection of the political, martial, and other aspects of Arkansas history leading up to and through the American Civil War.
The Arkansas Toothpick began over 25 years ago as a monthly hand-typed newsletter of the Spns of Confederate Veterans' Patrick R. Cleburne Camp #1433 in Pine Bluff, Arkansas. As the technology became available, the Toothpick was made available for the first time on the World Wide Web. Since, it's online presence has been overwhelming in the number of visitors searching our archives for a multitude of various topics.
Boasting of over ONE MILLION visitors, the Arkansas Toothpick has serves as a Civil War hub for historians and the general public. Our FACEBOOK page has nearly 1,000 FB Friends and counting, complete with live updates of Arkansastoothpick.com.
If you are interested in witinessing history coming alive or if you want to participate in living history events and Civil War reenactments, come to Helena, Arkansas! We have a Civil War-themed historic community where history thrives! Below is a list of upcoming Civil War events in Helena that are all free to the public. If you are interested in joining the ranks of a Union artillery group, a Union infantry group, or a Confederate infantry group, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org for more information or simply just show up at one of the following events:
June 22: Underground Railroad tour in Helena (10AM-7PM). Reenactors will be at Fort Curtis.
June 28: American Queen riverboat in town. Reenactors at Freedom Park and Fort Curtis (8AM-noon)
July 4: Commemoration of the Battle of Helena. Reenactors will hold educational programs from 4:30AM to 3PM
July 6: Freedom Fest. Reenactors will host educational programs throughout the day downtown on Cherry Street.
July 11: Civil War Roundtable of the Delta at Beth El Heritage Hall. Speaker will be Don Roth and the topic will be Alf Johnson's Confederate Spy Company with focus of the White River expeditions.
Delta Heritage Tours in Helena has on staff Ron Kelley and Don Roth, both Arkansastoothpick historians that research and write the 150th columns for over twenty newspapers statewide. The Civil War in Helena tours cover all the Confederate approaches to the Battle of Helena, Batteries A,B,C,and D, Freedom Park, Fort Curtis, and the Confederate Cemetery. This comprehansive tour gives the heritage tourist a first-hand knowledge of the Battle of Helena on July 4, 1863. Tours last at least three hours. For your custom Civil War tour, call Delta Heritage Tours: 870-995-2698.
Order your copy of the new book on the Battle of Jenkins' Ferry, featuring never before published material including a new look at the battle based on "The Gilmer Map". Harvest of Death is the first book in fifty years published on the battle. Order yours today on Amazon.com! Click on the book cover above!
"I am with the South in death, in victory or defeat. I never owned a Negro and care nothing for them, but these people have been my friends and have stood up to me on all occasions.
In addition to this, I believe the North is about to wage a brutal and unholy war on a people who have done them no wrong, in violation of the constitution and the fundamental principles of the government. They no longer acknowledge that all government derives its validity from the consent of the governed."
"If this cause that is so dear to my heart is doomed to fail, then I pray heaven may let me fall with it, while my face is turned toward the enemy and my right arm battling for that which I know to be right."
"To you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we will commit the vindication of the cause for which we fought. To your strength will be given the defense of the Confederate soldier's good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles which he loved and which you love also, and those ideals which made him glorious and which you also cherish."
Lt. General Stephen Dill Lee, Commander General, United Confederate Veterans, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 25, 1906.
Next the statesmen will invent cheap lies, putting the blame upon the nation that is attacked, and every man will be glad of those conscience-soothing falsities, and will diligently study them, and refuse to examine any refutations of them; and thus he will by and by convince himself that the war is just, and will thank God for the better sleep he enjoys after this process of grotesque self-deception.